To Amurru (AbB 12, 99)

SEAL no. 1644

  • BM 97298 obv.BM 97298 obv.
  • BM 97298 rev.BM 97298 rev.
Tablet Siglum
BM 97298
British Museum, London
Genre / Classification
Literary Letters


1 a-na be-el-ia dAmurrum({MAR}MAR.TU)

2 ša i-na ma-ḫar dŠamaš(UD) qí-bi-is-sú ša-ma-at

3 qí-bí-ma

4 um-ma Ar-du-um ardi(SAG.ÌR)-ka-ma

5 it-<ti> a-mi-li ta-ab-na-an-ni-ma su-qà-am

6 tu-še-te-qà-an-ni

7 ú ša-at-ti-ša nīqam(uduSÍSKUR.RE) a-la-qé-ku-ma

8 a-na i-lu-ti-ka ka-bi-it-tim

9 i-ip-pu-uš

10 i-na-an-na na-ak-ru ik-šu-da-an⌉-ni-ma

11 mu-uš-ke-né-ku-ma a-aḫ-ḫu-a!

12 ú-ul i-a-ri-ru-ni



13 šum-ma ìlu(DINGIR)-<ut>-ka ra-bi-tum da!(ŠA)-ra!-at!

14 i-na eršim(gišNÁ) na-da-a-ku di-ke-an-ni-ma?⌉

15 nīqam(uduSÍSKUR.RE) ṭà-aḫ-da-am

16 lu-ul-qé-a-am-ma a-na ma-ḫar ilu(DINGIR)-ti-ka

17 lu-ul-li-ka-ak-ku-[um?]

18 ša! mu-ṣa-lim ki-il <a?>-ma-sú

19 la <im?>ma-ḫar!-ma qí-in-ni la ip-pa-ra-a[r]

20 a-mi-ru-ia a-na ilu(DINGIR)-ti-ka

21 ba-ni-tim

22 lu-ša-{AK}ak-ri-ib 




1–3 To my lord Amurrum whose utterance is heard before Šamaš, say:

4 Thus (says) Ardum, your servant:

5–6 You have created me among men and led me along the street,

7–9 and so, every year, I take a sheep and perform a sacrifice for your venerable divinity.

10–12 (But) now, an enemy has seized me and I am miserable and my brothers have not come to my aid.



13–14 If your great divinity is everlasting, raise me from the bed, on which I am lying!

15–17 I will then make a generous sheep offering and come in front of your divinity.

18–19 The evildoer – hold back his word! It must not be accepted lest my family not be dispersed!

20–21 Those who see me (afterward) – I will make (them) pray to your propitious divinity. 


Word Translation Semantic Line
aḫum I brother Kinship terms 11
alākum (v.) (DU) G to go, walk; Gt go off, away; Gtn wander, go repeatedly, roam about, walk; Š caus. of G 17
āmirum, āmerum, āwirum that sees, reads 20
Amurrum (dMAR.TU) DN 1
Ardum PN 4
awātum, amātu (INIM) word, matter, speech 18
awīlum, aʾīlu (LÚ; LÚ.ÙLU) man, free man, human being Social status/Groups/Professions 5
banûm good, beautiful 21
banûm (v.) G to build, create; N be created, made 5
bēlum (EN) lord, master, proprietor, owner 1
darûm (v.) to last for ever 13
dekûm (v.) G to raise, wake up, call up, unleash, move (to), shift 14
epēšum (v.) G to do, make, build; Gt to do throroughly; Št be active, work on; N pass. of G 9
eršum IV (GIŠ.NÁ) bed Fabricated objects 14
etēqum I (v.) G to go past, cross over; Gtn iter.; Š caus. of G 6
ilūtum divinity, godhead 8, 13, 16, 20
inanna now 10
itti with 5
kabtum heavy, substantial, honoured, distinguished 8
karābum (v.) G to pray, bless, greet ; Gtn iter. Gt constantly pray to, call blessings on; Š caus. of G 22
kašādum (v.) G to reach, arrive; D drive off, chase away; Š caus. of G 10
kullum III (v.) to hold, hold back, cover 18
leqûm (v.) G to take, take over; Š caus. of G 7, 16
maḫārum (v.) G to face, confront, oppose, receive; N to be accepted, received 19
maḫrum II front, presence 2, 16
muṣallûm who insults 18
muškēnum dependant, bondsman of the palace; poor man 11
na'arrurum (v.) N to go to assist, bring reinforcements 12
nadûm III (v.) G to throw down, lay down; N to be rejected; Š caus. of G 14
nakrum strange, foreign, enemy Social status/Groups/Professions 10
nīqum (UDU.SÍSKUR) offering, sacrifice 7, 15
parārum (v.) G to be dissolved, broken up; N be scattered, dispersed 19
qabûm (v.) (DUG4) G to say, speak, command 3
qibītum speech, command, utterance, word Verbal expressions 2
qinnum nest; family Fabricated objects 19
rabûm (GAL) I big 13
Šamaš, šamšum (dUtu) DN, sun Deities/Divine sphere 2
šattišam year by year, yearly 7
šemûm (v.) G to listen, to hear; Gtn to hear, to listen again and again 2
šumma if 13
sūqum (SILA) street Locations/Buildings 5
ṭaḫdum luxuriant 15
umma saying 4
wardum (SAG.ÌR; ÌR) slave, servant 4
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Revision History
Wasserman, Nathan
Corrections and web-formatting
Wasserman, Nathan
Photography, web-imaging
Wasserman, Nathan
Wasserman, Nathan
Corrections: Transliteration, translation
Bloch, Yigal
Corrections: transliteration; translation
Tulaikova, Yulia
Additions to Index
Wasserman, Nathan
Corrections to trans.; Commentary