Guichard 2014, 12ff. (Zimrī-līm Epic)

SEAL no. 1552

Copy / Photo
Collection
Deir ez-Zor Museum
Edition
122 n. 9 (112–123)
119 n. 3 (74–76)
106a-b (97–98)
57 n. 280 (145)
428 (18–23)
475 (165–169)
393 (137–142)
332 n. 189 (112–114)
325 n. 137 (17–23)
325 n. 140 (165–166)
328 n. 154 (25–28)
Studies
Genre / Classification
Epics
Text

col. i

i1 [Zi-im-ri-l]i-im ri-im tu-qú-um-tim lu-na-i-id

i2 [qú-ra-da-a]m a-na di-ri šu-ma-aš-šu lu-uš-ta-aš-ni

i3 [Zi-im-ri-li-i]m a-pil ia-aḫ-du-li-im a-ša-re-ed ḫa-na

i4 [mu-aʾ4-ab-bi-it du]-ur na-ak {R[I]}-ri-im

i5 [0 0 0 0 0] ⌈x⌉ me-er lu-ul-li še20-me-e

i6 [uṣ-ṣí-ra a]-wa-ti mu-ur-ta-di?⌉-[i]d? za-e-ra-am

i7 [mu-ka-an-ni-iš] na-ak-ri-šu

i8 [eṭ-lum pé-t]i-iú gišŠUKUR  mu-ut-⌈x-x-ki/di

i9 [a-ḫi-iz ma-tim] e-li ma-a-tim

i10 [Zi-im-ri]-li-im pé-ti-iú gišŠUKUR  mu-ut-x-x-ki/di]

i11 [a-ḫi-i]z? ma-tim e-li ma-a⌉-tim

i12 [i]-⌈ŠÀ?⌉ ⌈šu-qú-ri ib-bu-ú DINGIRmeš šum-šu

i13 zi-ik-ru dA-nim li⌉-te9(TI)-li-il ri-im ma-ti-šu

i14 zi-im-ri-li-im ib-bu-ú DINGIRmeš šum-šu

i15 zi-ik-ru dA-nim li-te9-li-il ri-im ma-ti-šu

i16 LUGAL ša-pé-e-em lu?⌉-ša-ar-bi-ma

i17 na-ak-ri dEN-LÍL iš-ta-ka-an za-ri-šu

i18 ib-bi-ri-it ḫa-bu-ur ù pu-ra-an-tim

i19 i-na aš-ri dIŠKUR i-di-nu di-na-aš-šu

i20 id-di ri-ig-ma-aš-šu qí-in-na-šu ú-pa-ar-ri-ir

i21 a-na ki-ib-ra-at er-be-e-im ṭe4-em-šu is-pu-uḫ

i22 im-šu-úʾ ma-a-tum bu-ši qa-ti-šu

i23 i-na a-lim Bi-⌈sa⌉-anki KÙ-SI22eb-ba-am

i24 ib-tu-uq na-ak-ra-am ki-i ki-ṣí-ir a-bi-ḫi-im

i25 iš-ti er-ṣe-tum da-mi qar-ra-di

i26 i-il-la-ak an-nu-ni-tumx(TIM) i-na i-mi-ti-šu

i27 dIŠKUR ša-pu-ú ri-gi-im-šu id-di

i28 id-di ri-ig-ma-aš-šu iš-te9-bi-ir gišŠUKUR na-ak-ri

i29 it-bu-uk i-ma-as-sú am-ma-ta-[tim]

i30 Zi-im-ri-li-im še2o-bi-ru gišŠUKUR na-ak-ri-im

i31 it-bu-uk i-ma-as-sú e-l[i] na-ak-ri-šu

i32 pu-tam ta-an-pí-iḫ-tam is-ri-[im?] ⌈i⌉-ša-at qa-ab-lim

i33 ma-an-nu-um él-ka [ša] ú-ba-al-lu-ši-ma

i34 at-ta te-ep-ti [0 0]  pu-šu-uq ša-du-i

i35 ša sí-ik-k[u-ru ed-l]u-ú gišIGZUNA4

i36 Zi-im-r[i-li-im p]é-ti-iú gišIGḫá, dan-nim

i37 sa s[í-ik-ku-ru ed-lu]-⌈ú gišIG ZI-NA NA4

i38 [0 0 0 0 0 ma-ti]m? ka-li-ši

i39 [0 0 0 0 0 0]x-am tu-ra-am-mi du-un-na-aš-ši

i40 [0 0 0 ka-la (?) ni-š]i e-pé-tim

i41 [0 0 0 0 0 da-r]a-am tu-ša-aš-ki-in šum-ka

i42 [  ]x ⌈e-te-él-le-et

i43 [  ]x ta?⌉-aš-ku-un

i44 [  ] ⌈x⌉ ⌈ka

(10 lines lost)

 

col. ii

ii1 Zi-im-ri-l[i-im]

ii2 ki-ma pé-er-di-im x[...]

ii3 ip-pa-an ki-iṣ-ra-[tim  ]

ii4 ra-ki-ib ši-ḫa-mi [...]

ii5 a-na pa-ni-šu pa-ri-kum ú-[ul i-ba-aš-ši]

ii6 li-ta-am-ḫa-aḫ na-ak-rum ki-[ṭi-di-im ina me-e (?)]

ii7 wa-ar-ku-um ṭà-ri-du-um ú-ul i[p?-pa-ar-ši-id]

ii8 pé-tu-ú-um 2 [gišIGḫá ša-du-i (?)]

ii9 la-li-iú-um i-du-uk  za-r[i-šu ]

ii10 a-ša-am-ša-tum is-ḫu-ra-šu-nu-ši-i[m]

ii11 ú-ul i-du-ur a-li-kam [a]-na im-ni-š[u ù šu-me-li-šu (?)]

ii12 bu-ku-ur dEN-LÍL dla-ga-ma-al e-t[e]-⌈él-lu

ii13 ù ti-il-la-as-su-ma?⌉ [i]p-ri-ku ša? –ni!? qar?-ra?-di?⌉

ii14 ki-ma ap-pa-ri-im i-ṣí-da-am ṣa-ba-šu

ii15 ki-ma bi-nim šu-um-qú-tu qar-ra-du

ii16 iš-ti er-ṣe-tum da-mi-šu

ii17 a-ki!?-i? ⌈d?IŠKUR⌉ šu-pu a-na ḫu-ur-ri-im

ii18 Zi-im-ri-li-im ni-im-ru a-na-na-tim

ii19 da-an-nu-um ka-mi lem?-ni?⌉ [mu]-ḫa-al-li-iq na-ak-ri

ii20 pí-šu i-pu-ša-am i-qa-ab-bi

ii21 is-sà-aq-qa-ra-am a-na eṭ-li-šu

ii22 ša-as-su-ru-um ib-ni-ku-nu-tim

ii23 um-mu-um ki-ma ku-nu-ti-ma ul-da-an-ni

ii24 ša-ti ta-ḫa-zu e-1i-ia pa-ni iš?⌉-ni

ii25 ki-ib-ra-at er-bé-e-im ku-nu-ti?⌉ na-ak-ra

ii26 ù ma-a-tum [0] ⌈ga?⌉ x ⌈ta? ri/ur?⌉ ⌈šu-še-ra-nim

ii27 na-ak-ru-um pa?⌉-[ḫi-i]r? x M[I?] ⌈x tim?? x na?-tum?⌉

ii28 a-na ta-ḫa-zi-im⌉ [e-pé-ši-im a-na-ku lu-uš-te-še]-er

ii29 [ri-im šar-r]i?ku-nu-um ki ša [ḫa-da-an-šu i-ka-ša-du]

ii30 z[i-i]m-ri-li-im ku-nu-um ki šaḫa-da-a[n-šu i-ka-ša-du]

ii31 ú-ta-e-er šu-uk-ka-al-la-šu

ii32 lú-mešsu-ga!-gi iš-pu-ut

ii33 qar-ra-di-ia!(E) Ḫa-na li-qa-ar-ri-bu-nim

ii34 DUMUmeš na-qí-di li-ru-bu ma-aḫ-ri IGI-ia

ii35 i-na pí-iḫ-ri-im wa-ši-bu-ut a-aḫ pu-ra-an-tim

ii36 i-na mi-il-ki-ku-nu a-na-ku lu-pu-úš

ii37 iš-me-ma an-né-e-em qa-ba-šu

ii38 aš-ma-ad me-er-ʾu5-um-ma is-sà-aq-qa-ar-šum

ii39 mi-na-am šu-ba-ra-am ta-na-áʾ-ʾì-id

ii40 la ú[s-sà]-ḫi-ru i-ša-at qa-ab-li-ka

ii41 ḫu-ur-[ba-š]u ṣí-il-lu [GI]Šḫá qí-iš-tim

ii42 gu-šu-r[u-šu]-nu az-zi-im-ma la ḫe-ru li-ša-an pa-ši-im

ii43 sà-ap-ḫ[a-at] šu-ba-ar-tum ki-i UDUḫá ri-tim

ii44 []-ra-[num] a-na re-di-i-im ṣí-di-tum ša-ak-na-at

ii45 [Zi-im-ri-l]i-im li-mu-ru qú-ru-ud-ka

ii46 [te-ni-iš-tum a-na di-r]i? li-na-i-id šum-ka

ii47 [LUGAL iḫ-du a-na a-w]a?-at?⌉ me-er-ʾì-im wa-ar-di-šu

ii48 [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ki-ma] ⌈e-ṣí-du-ut ú-ga-ri-im

ii49 [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 i]k-tu-um

ii50 [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]x-um

ii51 [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a]m

ii52 [...]

ii53 [...]

 

col. iii

iii1 ti-il-la-ti-šu-nu ú-ma-a[l-lu] ṣe-ra-am

iii2 la-bi-iš ap-lu-uḫ-tam ik-ki-ib-šu e-né-nu

iii3 mi-im-ma ša ip-ri-ku a-na pa-ni-šu ma-aq-tu

iii4 šu-ul-pu-tu su-up-pu-ḫu up-pu-ú ANŠEḫá

iii5 a-ḫu-né-e i-ta-ad-du-ú qar-ra-du

iii6 ba-al-la-at qé-er-bé-tum i-na da-mi-šu-nu

iii7 a-di ša ik-šu-du ḫa-da-an-šu LUGAL

iii8 ù i-da-ma-ra-aṣ ú-ka-an-ni-išº aš-še-pé-šu

iii9 me-e na-da-tim iš-ta-na-at-ti

iii10 e-si-ik it-ti re-di-i ka-lum-ma iš-šu-uš

iii11 ra-ab-bu ba!-ia-ru wa-ṣú-šu

iii12 ki-ma sí-ir-ra-m[i]-im pé-e ṣe-ru-um

iii13 ši-ra-am i-ku-lu mu-tu-šu

iii14 li-ib-ba-am ir-šu-ú da-na-na-am uṣ-bu

iii15 Zi-im-ri-li-im ki-ma šu-ri-nim ip-pa-na i-la-ak

iii16 is-ḫu-ur a-na la le-i-im i-na-ad-di-in li-ib-ba-am

iii17 di-in-na-ma i-te-ru-ba

iii18 iš-di-ku-nu i-im-ma-ar na-ak-rum

iii19 ṣa-ab-tu ši-ru-šu-nu i-ša-tam

iii20 ka-ar-šu-šu-nu ši-wi-tam la-am-du

iii21 ⌈la-ab-šu pa-at-[r]i na-am-ṣa-ri šu-ku-ur-ri

iii22 [i-du]-⌈úš?⌉-šu-nu i-šu-ur-ru ul-mu

iii23 [a-na šu-te(?)]l-li e-zi-ba-at ṣe-ri-im

iii24 ⌈i?⌉-[la-ak pa-na te]-⌈li⌉-tum Eš4-tár

iii25 i-nu-ma x[...]x ⌈ú x x⌉ NA/DU-AZ/UK-ŠUM

iii26 iš-ku-un ša-ak-ni-š[u i-na a-aḫ] na-ri-im

iii27 la na-bi-iú-tim it-ti DING[IRmeš i-ri-iš a-na] ⌈re⌉-di-im

iii28 ar-ḫi-iš LUGAL i-pu-lu a[n-na-am]

iii29 it-ta-an-pa-aḫ tu-uq-ma-tim qé-re-eb?⌉ [ma-a-ti]m?

iii30 we-de-nu-úš-šu eṭ-lum ú-ul i-la-ak ge-er-r[a-am]

iii31 LUGAL zi-ik-ru-úš dDa-gan e-te9-él-ma

iii32 iṣ-ṣa-am-ma-ar e-li mu-ti ki-im-ti-šu

iii33 Zi-im-ri-li-im zi-ik-ru-úš dDa-gan e-te9-él-ma

iii34 tu-uk-la-as-su dI-túr-me-er ur-ša-nu

iii35 i-mu-ur-ma it-ta-šu a-pí-la-am e-te9-él ma-ti-š[u?]

iii36 LUGAL li-ib-ba-šu da-na-na-am uṣ-ba-am

iii37 i-la-ak ad-du-um i-na šu-me-li-šu

iii38 Èr-ra da-pí-nu-um-ma i-na im-ni-šu

iii39 uš-ta-aṣ-bi-it ki-iṣ-ri-šu i-na a-aḫ Ḫa-bu-ur

iii40 mu-ša-am-ma a-na pa-ni-šu-nu e-bi-ir

iii41 ìs-si DUMUmeš MÁŠ-ŠU-SU13-SU13 ú-za-ak-ki

iii42 dUTU qú-ra-du-um i-ta-ap-la-an-ni

iii43     UD-ma-am an-né-e-em a-ka-am-mi na-ak-ri

iii44 eṭ-lu-ia ti-iṣ-ma-ra d[a-na-na-a]m?

iii45 ḫu-us-sà na-ak-ri-ku-nu ki-[i 0 0 0]x

iii46 qar-ra-du-šu iš-mu-ú zi-k[i-ir ša-ap-ti-šu (?)]

iii47 ki-i 1 ḫu-ḫa-ri-im ìs-ḫu-p[u na-ak-ri-šu-nu]

iii48 ša ip-pa-ar-ši-du […]

iii49 ša i-ti-qú ṣe-di-ir […]

iii50 Zi-im-ri-li-im na-[…]

iii51 mi-iš-li n[a?-ak-ri…]

iii52 zu-bi⌉ […]

iii53 LUGAL x[…]

iii54 ḪI-x […]

 

col. iv

iv1 [0 0 0 0 0 0-a]m iḫ-pí

iv2 [0 0 0 0] ⌈ú-ša-aš-ki-in

iv3 [0 0 0] ú-ma-al-li ma-a-tam

iv4 [ša Zi-im-ri]-li-im i-pu-lu ze-er-tam

iv5 [ú-u]l ib-lu-ṭú šu-nu im-tu-tu

iv6 []-tu LUGAL ik-šu-du ḫa-da-an-šu

iv7 [i]-ru-ub ma-ḫa-ar nu-na-am-ni-ir

iv8 [i-n]a e-ki-si-iq-qa SÍSKUR-RE-šu iq-qí

iv9 []-re-eb Ter-qaki na-ra-ma-at  dDa-gan

iv10 ba-la-ṭà-am ḫe-gál-la-am ù da-na-na-am

iv11 it-ti dDa-gan Zi-im-ri-li-im i-ri-iš

 

Translation

 

(i 1) Let me praise [Zimrī-L]īm, the wild bull of combats,

(2) The h[ero] – let me retell his praises forever!

(3) [Zimrī-L]īm, the first-born of Yaḫdun-Līm who walks at the head of the Ḫana,

(4) [The destroyer] the enemy’s cita[del],

(5) Let me extol [the hero of (the god) Itūr]-Mēr; listen!

(6) [Pay heed] to my words as he who keeps pursuing the foe!

(7) [The subduer] of his enemies,

(8) [The lad who laun]ches the lances, he who [. . .]

(9) [Who gains control over land] after land,

(10) Zimrī-Līm who launches the lances, he who [. . .]

(11) Who gains control over land after land!

(12) In the most precious womb did the gods call his name:

(13) “According to the word of An, may he excel, the wild bull of his land!”

(14) “Zimrī-Līm!” did the gods call his name,

(15) “According to the word of An, may he excel, the wild bull of his land!”

(16) Let me glorify the illustrious king:

(17) He set the enemies of Enlil as his foes.

(18) Between the Khabur and the Euphrates,

(19) Where Adad passes his judgement,

(20) There he burst out his cry and dispersed the (enemy’s) nests.

(21) To the four corners of the world he spread his will.

(22) The Land carried booty, possessions belonging (to the enemy):

(23) Pure gold, in the town of Bisan. 

(24) He pierced the enemy as (cutting) a tied rope,

(25) The netherworld drank the heroes’ blood.

(26) Annunītum walking at his right,

(27) Roaring Adad burst out his cry,

(28) He burst out his cry – broke the enemy’s lances.

(29) He poured his venom on the (hostile) lands.

(30) Zimrī-Līm, the breaker of the enemy’s lances,

(31) Poured his venom on his enemies.

(32) The blaze of battle scorched the firing line:

(33) Who but you can extinguish it?

(34) It is you who managed to open narrow (paths) in the mountains,

(35) Locked with bolts, with doors of stone-made plates,

(36) Zimrī-Līm, who got through the citadel’s doors,

(37) Locked with bolts, with a door of stone-made grid.

(38) [. . .] the entire land.

(39) You have established the glory [of your land],

(40) [. . .] over the dense population,

(41) [. . .] you made an [ever]lasting renown.

(42) [. . .] exalted (fame).

(43) [. . .] you have established.

(About 10 lines missing)

 

(ii 1) Zimrī-Līm [. . .]

(2) Like a horse [. . .],

(3) At the head of the squadrons, [. . .].

(4) Rider of stallions(?) [. . .],

(5) [There is] n[o] opponent (who can) face him,

(6) So that the enemy disintegrates as [clay in water(?)],

(7) And in the rear, no fugitive will e[scape].

(8) Getting through the two [doors in the mountains],

(9) The Deer killed his fo[es . . .].

(10) Dust storms surrounded them.

(11) He did not fear the one walking on his right [or left],

(12) (For) the first-born of Enlil, the god Lā-Gamāl, the prince,

(13) And his auxiliary forces blocked the charge of (enemy’s) fighters,

(14) He cut the (enemy’s) army like marsh reeds,

(15) Like a tamarisk were the (enemy’s) heroes cut down,

(16) The netherworld drank their blood.

(17) Ever after Adad appeared majestically,

(18) Zimrī-Līm, the panther of warfare,

(19) The fierce, the queller of the wicked ones, the annihilator of the enemies,

(20) Opened his mouth and said,

(21) Addressed his young warriors:

(22) “The (same) womb created you,

(23) The (same) mother, as yours, bore me!

(24) The war has become entangled and reached me,

(25) (And now) the four corners of the world are hostile against you!

(26) Indeed, the land is [adverse(?)] – liberate (it) for me!

(27) The enemy is gathered [. . .]

(28) To the fight [let us march!]”

(29) [The bull of k]ings, the just one, [in order to ob]tain his goal,

(30) Zimrī-Līm, the just one, [in order to obtain his] goal,

(31) Commanded his counselor,

(32) Gave orders to the tribal leaders:

(33) “Let them summon my warriors, the people of Ḫana!

(34) May all the shepherds come in front of me!

(35) With the best of troops, the dwellers of the bank of the Euphrates –

(36) I will do as your resolution will be!”

(37) Having heard his words,

(38) Ašmaṭ, his chief-shepherd, said to him:

(39) “Why are you worried by the people of Subartu?

(40) Your blaze of battle should not turn back!

(41) Frost lies under the shade of the trees of the forest,

(42) For their trunks were not exposed to the luster of an axe’s blade.

(43) The land of Subartu is spread like pasturing sheep,

(44) Provision for (our) troops is to be found there.

(45) Oh Zimrī-Līm, let them experience your might!

(46) May [the people] praise your name forever!”

(47) [The king rejoic]ed at the words of his servant, the chief shepherd.

(48) [. . .] the reapers in the field.

(About 6 lines missing)

 

(iii 1) With their auxiliary forces they have filled the plain,

(2) But he, clad in armor, mercifulness is an abomination to him:

(3) Whoever opposes him falls down.

(4) All around are spread the slain (enemy’s) donkeys,

(5) The heroes are thrown in all sides.

(6) The valley is soaked with their blood.

(7) Until he obtains his goal – the king –

(8) And subjugates the land of Ida-maraṣ to his feet,

(9) He keeps drinking (only) from waterskins,

(10) Busy with his troops, sharing all (their) troubles,

(11) He goes out (to the ambush with) the great hunters.

(12) As the onager in the field (is feeding) on chaff,

(13) So his men were eating game –

(14) (Thus) they were gaining ambition, gathering courage.

(15) Zimrī-Līm is marching in the fore as a standard,

(16) Turning back to support the weary:

(17) “Get stronger! Keep entering (into the hostile land)!

(18) The enemy will see your contingents!”

(19) Their flash then set ablaze,

(20) And burning ignited in their guts.

(21) Clad with daggers, swords and lances,

(22) Axes swinging at their sides.

(23) In order to get hold of the rest of the field,

(24) The [ing]enious Ištar [is walking at the front].

(25) When [. . .] for him,

(26) He stationed his officers on [the bank of] the river,

(27) [And turned with a query] to the gods who were still not asked, about marching (to battle).

(28) They answered the king at once: “Yes!”

(29) (And so,) battles broke out in the midst of the (hostile) land.

(30) The young warrior will not walk alone in the campaign.

(31) The king, in accordance with the word of Dagān, being grand,

(32) Will be protected by the men of his clan.

(33) Zimrī-Līm, in accordance with the word of Dagān, being grand,

(34) Put his trust in Itūr-Mēr, the powerful god.

(35) When the prince of the land saw his oracular sign, (given) through the diviner,

(36) The king – his heart was increasing with bravery.

(37) Adad was walking at his left,

(38) Erra, the thrusting one, at his right.

(39) He positioned his squadrons at the bank of the Khabur,

(40) And by night, heading them, he crossed it.

(41) He summoned the diviners, cleansed himself (saying):

(42) “Oh Šamaš, answer me:

(43) Will I quell my enemies today?”

(44) “Oh my young warriors, strive for courage!

(45) Consider your enemy as [a trapped bird]!”

(46) His heroes heard his [words]

(47) And fell over [the enemy] as a bird-snare.

(48) He who hoped to escape [was trapped],

(49) He who wanted to flight was caught [. . .]

(50) Zimrī-Līm [. . .]

(51) Half of the en]emy’s (army) . . .[

(About 3 lines missing)

 

(iv 1) He broke the [. . .]

(2) He ordered to install the [. . .]

(3) He filled the land [with . . .]

(4) Those who answered [Zimrī]-Līm with hostility

(5) Did [no]t stay alive, they have perished.

(6) Straight after the king obtained his goal,

(7) He entered in front of the god Nunamnir,

(8) And in the temple Ekisiqqa he presented his offerings.

(9) In Terqa, the beloved (city) of Dagān,

(10) Life, abundance and valor

(11) Did Zimrī-Līm ask of Dagān.

 
Vocabulary
Word Translation Semantic Line
ebīḫum, abīḫum rope, cord i24
abnum (NA4) stone, rock Materials i35, 37
Adad (dIŠKUR) DN i19, 27, ii17
adānum, ḫadānum fixed date, time limit ii 30, iii7, iv6
adārum II (v.) G to be afraid, fear, be worried, disturbed; Š to cause annoyance, frighten ii11
aḫum II arm, side; bank (of river) [ii26], iii39
aḫunê separately, individually iii5
akālum (v.) G to eat, consume, devastate; Gtn iter. of G; Š caus. of G iii13
alākum (v.) (DU) G to go, walk; Gt go off, away; Gtn wander, go repeatedly, roam about, walk Written texts/Literary terms i26, iii15, 30, 37
amārum (v.) G to see; catch sight of; N pass. of G, be found ii45, iii18, 35
anantum battle, strife ii18
Annunītum DN i26
āpilum answerer; a kind of prophet (Mari) iii35
apluḫtum armour iii2
aplum (TUR.UŠ) heir, son i3
appārum reed-bed, marsh ii14
arḫiš quickly, hastily iii28
ašamšūtum dust storm ii10
ašarēdum (SAG.KAL) first and foremost, pre-eminent, leader i3
ašāšum (v.) Gt ~ G, to be distressed; to be aggrieved, angry iii10
ašrānum there, in that very place ii44 (?)
ašrum (KI) place, site i19, ii17
awātum, amātu (INIM) word, matter, speech i6, ii47 (?)
balālum (v.) G to mix up; D coat, smear iii6
balāṭum (TI) life, vigour, good health iv10
balāṭum (v.) G to live, stat. be alive; D bring back to life, revive iv5
banûm (v.) G to build, create; N be created, made ii22
batāqum (v.) G to cut off, divide, tear off i24
bayyārum huntsman iii11
bērum II, bīrum, ba/e/i'rum selected; elite (of soldiers) iii11
bīnum II (gišŠINIG) tamarisk ii15
birīt between, among i18
Bisan GN i23
bukrum son, child, first born Kinship terms ii12
būšum goods, property ii22
Dagan DN iii31, 33, iv9, 11
dâkum (v.) to kill, beat ii9
daltum (GIŠ.IG) door i35, 36, 37
dāmum blood i25, ii16, iii6
danānum power, strength iii14, 36, 44 (?), iv10
danānum (v.) G to be(come) strong, powerful iii17
dannum (KAL.GA) powerful, mighty, great, strong i36, ii19
dapīnum overbearing, savage iii38
dārum era, eternity i41
diānum, dânum (v.) to judge i19
dīnum (DI.KU5) verdict, case, judgement, legal decision i19
dīrum eternity i2, ii46 (?)
dunnum strength, force i39
dūrum (city) wall, rampart i4
ebbum bright, pure i23
ebērum (v.) G to cross over; Š make to cross, bring across iii40
edēlum (v.) to shut, bolt i35, 37
Ekisikk/qqa TN iv8
elēlum II (v.) G to become pure, free; D purify i13, 15
ellum (KÙ.GA) pure, clear, sacred iii24
elûm (v.) G to go up; D exalt; Š caus. of G iii23
enēnum (v.) G to grant a privilege, do a favor, to grant favour, be favourable iii2
Enlil DN i17, ii12
epēšum (v.) G to do, make, build; Gt to do throroughly; Št be active, work on; N pass. of G ii20, 36
erbe four i21, ii25
erēbum (v.) (KU4) G to enter, come in; Š cause to enter, bring in ii34, iii17, iv7
erēšum (v.) G to request, with for iv11
Erra DN, DN ( = Mars?) iii38
erṣetum (KI) earth, land, netherworld i25, ii16
eṣēdum (v.) G to harvest, reap ii14
esēḫum (v.) to assign, allocate iii10
ešērum (v.) G be straight, direct towards; be or become all right, be fair; Š put in good condition, make straight ii28
ēṣidum reaper, harvester ii48
etellum (NIR) lord, prince, pre-eminent i42, ii12, iii31, 33, 35
etēqum I (v.) G to go past, cross over; Gtn iter.; Š caus. of G iii49
eṭlum (GURUŠ; ŠUL) manly; young man Human activities/actions,Social status/Groups/Professions ii21, iii30, 44
gerrum way, caravan, (military) campaign; marching song? iii23
gušūrum tree-trunk, beam, log ii42
Ḫabūr GN i18, iii39
ḫadānum, adānum fixed date, time limit ii30, iii7, iv6
Ḫana (ḪA.NA) GN i3, ii33
ḫasāsum (v.) G to remember, to be conscious iii45
ḫegallum (ḪÉ.GÁL) abundance, productivity, prosperity, plenty iv10
ḫepûm (v.) G to break, ruin, destroy; N to be broken iv1
ḫerûm (v.) G to dig, excavate ii42
ḫuḫārum bird-snare iii47
ḫurāṣum (KÙ.SIG17; KÙ.GÌ) gold i23
ḫurbāšum frost, terror ii41
ḫurri ever (after) ii17
Ida-maraṣ GN iii8
idum (Á) arm; side; strength; wage iii22 (?)
ikkibum taboo iii2
ilum (DINGIR) god, deity Deities/Divine sphere i12, 14, iii27
imērum (ANŠE) donkey iii4
imittum right hand, right side i26
immerum (UDU) sheep ii43
imnum right hand, right side ii11, iii38
imtum poison, venom i29, 31
išātum fire, fire (of heart), inflammation, fever i32, ii40, iii19
išdum (SUḪUŠ) foundation, base; root iii18
Ištar DN iii24
iṣum (GIŠ) tree, wood ii41
ittum sign, mark iii35
Itūr-Mēr DN iii34
kalûm II (DÙ.A.BI) all, totality, everything i38
kalummûm everything iii10
kamûm (v.) to bind, snare ii19, iii43
karšum stomach, interior, womb; mind, understanding iii20
kašādum (v.) G to reach, arrive; D drive off, chase away; Š caus. of G iii7, iv6
kibrum (UB) bank (of a river), shore, rim, brink; quarter of the world i21, ii25
kimtum family, clan iii32
kiṣrum knot, concentration, group, lump i24, ii3, iii39
Lā-gamal DN ii12
labāšum (v.) G to clothe, put on; D to clothe iii2, 21
lalium kid, young goat ii9
lamādum (v.) to learn, to become aware ii20
lemnum (ḪUL) evil, bad; evil person, enemy ii19 (?)
lē'ûm powerful, competent iii16
lē'um (gišIG.ZU) board (of door) i35
libbum (ŠÀ) heart, mind; inner body i12 (?), iii14, 16, 36
lišānum tongue (of flame), tongue, language ii42
maḫāḫum (v.) to soak, steep; dissolve in liquid ii6
maḫrum II front, presence ii34, iv3
malûm IV (v.) G to become full, fill up; D fill (up); Št to provide iii1, iv3
mannum who?, who i33
maqātum (v.) G to fall, drop; Š caus. of G iii3
mār bārîm diviner iii41
mār nāqidim herdsman ii34
mašā'um (v.) to take away by force, rob i22
mātum (KUR; KALAM) land, country Locations/Buildings i9, 11, 13, 15, 22, 29, 38 (?), ii26, iii29 (?), 35, iv3
mâtum (v.) G to die iv5
merḫum I chief shepherd ii38, 47
milkum advice, counsel, resolution, intelligence ii36
mimma anything, something; everything, all iii3
mīnum what, what? ii39
mišlum half, middle, centre iii50
mû I (A(.MEŠ)) water iii9
muḫalliqum destroyer ii19
mūšum (GI6) night(-time) iii40
mutum husband; man, warrior iii13, 32
nabûm (v.) to name, nominate, decree, invoke i12, 14
nadānum (v.) (SUM) G to give, bestow iii16, 25
nādum waterskin iii9
nadûm III (v.) G to throw down, lay down; N to be rejected i20, 27, 28, iii5
nakārum (v.) to be(come) different, strange, hostile; G change; D change, alter ii25
nakrum strange, foreign, enemy i4, 7, 17, 24, 28, 30, 31, ii6, 19, 27, iii17, 43, 45, 51 (?)
namṣārum sword iii21
napāḫum (v.) G to blow, light up, rise iii29
naparšudum (v.) to flee, escape ii7 (?), iii48
naqûm (v.) to pour (a libation), sacrifice iv8
narāmtum beloved, favourite (woman) iv9
nārum I (ÍD) river, watercourse, canal iii26
natārum (v.) to split open; D cleave, demolish ii17
na'ādum (v.) to be attentive, concerned, worried ii39
nimrum leopard ii18
nīqum (UDU.SÍSKUR) offering, sacrifice iv8
nišū (UN.MEŠ) people, humanity, population [i40]
Nunamnir DN, literary epithet of Enlil iv7
pānum I (IGI) front, face, earlier times Body/Body parts ii3, 5, 24 (?), 34, iii3, 15, 40
parākum (v.) to lie across, obstruct, block ii13 (?), iii3
pāšum axe, adze ii42
patrum sword, dagger iii21
perdum kind of equid ii2
petûm II (v.) G to open, expose; Š to cause to open i8, 10, 34, 36, ii8
piḫrum troops ii35
pûm I (KA) mouth, statement, command, opening ii20
pûm II chaff iii12
Purattum Euphrates i18
purrurum dispersed, scattered i20
pušqum narrowness, straits i34
pūtum forehead, brow i32
qablum II (ŠEN.ŠEN) battle, fight i32, ii40
qarrādum (UR.SAG) warlike; hero, warrior i25, ii13,15, 33, iii5, 46
qātum (ŠU) hand i22
qerbum centre, interior iii29, iv9
qinnum nest; family i20
qištum (GIŠ.TIR) forest, wood ii41
qurādum hero, warrior iii42
qurdum warriorhood, heroism ii45
rabûm (GAL) I big iii11
rākibum rider ii4
rašûm (v.) G to acquire, get; Š caus. of G iii14
redûm I (v.) G to accompany, lead, drive, proceed; Gtn to accompany constantly, lead iii27
rēdûm soldier, private ii44, iii10
rigmum voice, cry, noise i20, 27, 28
rīmum (AM) wild bull i1, 13, 15
rîtum pasture ii43
ṣabātum (v.) (DAB5) G to seize, take, hold iii19
ṣābum (ÉRIN, ÉRIN.ḪÁ) people, troops Social status/Groups/Professions i14
šadûm I (KUR; ḪUR.SAG) mountain, open country i34
saḫāpum (v.) G to envelop, overwhelm iii47
saḫāpum (v.) G to envelop, overwhelm iii16, ii10, 40
šakānum (v.) (GAR) to put, place, lay down i17, 41 (III), 43, ii44, iii26, iv 2
šaknum placed, deposited etc.; governor, appointee iii26
ṣamārum (v.) to wish, strive for iii32, 44
sapāḫum (v.) G to scatter, disperse; D squander, spend freely, scatter; N pass. of G i5, ii43, iii4
šapāṭum (v.) to give judgement, exercise authority ii32
šapûm II (v.) to be dense, thick; to (be)come loud i27
ṣarāḫum II (v.) to light up, flare up i32
šarrum (LUGAL; EN) king, lord i16, iii7, 28, 31, 36, 53, iv i16, iii7, 28, 31, 36, 53, iv 6
šassūrum, sassūrum womb ii22
šasûm (v.) G to shout, call (out), read (out); Gtn iter. of G iii41
šatûm II (v.) G to drink i25, ii16, iii9
šatûm III (v.) G to knot together, weave ii24
šebērum (v.) to break i28, 30
ṣadārum (v.) to be (placed) askew, slant iii49
šemûm (v.) G to listen, to hear; Gtn to hear, to listen again and again i5, ii37, iii 46
šēpum foot, leg iii8
ṣērum (EDIN) back, upperside, steppe, open country, towards iii1, 12, 23
ṣidītum provisions i44
šiḫāmum equid? ii4
sikkūrum (GIŠ.SAG.KUL) bar, bolt (as locking device) i35, 37
ṣillum (GISSU) protection; shade, shadow ii41
šimtum mark, token; colour, paint, burn iii20
sirramum onager iii12
šīrum (UZU) flesh, body; entrails; kinsman, blood relative, meat; ominous sign iii13, 19
sugāgum sheikh, tribal representative ii32
šukkallum minister, a court official ii31
šukurrum(gišŠUKUR) lance, spear i8,10, 28, 30, iii21
šulputum defiled, ruined Qualities/Attributes iii4
šumēlum left side, left hand iii37
šumum (MU) name; son; line of text i2, 12, 14, 41, ii46
šūpûm made apparent, resplendent, famous, shining, splendid ii17
šūqurum precious, very valuable i12
šurbûm very great i16
šurīnum (divine) emblem i15
šutašnûm repeated, doubled i2
tabākum (v.) G to pour (out), lay flat i29, 31
tāḫāzum (ME; ME6) battle, combat ii24, 28
tanpiḫtum burning, inflammation, fire i32
ṭarīdum fugitive i7
Telītum DN, “(the) very competent (one)” epith. of goddesses esp. Ištar iii24
ṭēmum thought, plan, instruction, information i21
Terqa GN iv9
tillatum (ILLAT) help; reinforcement ii13, iii1
tukultum (NIR.GÁL) trust, support iii34
tuqumtum, tuqmatum battle, fight i1, iii29
ugārum (A.GÀR) meadow ii48
ullûm II exalted i5
ulmum axe iii22
ummum mother ii23
ūmum I (UD) day, daily iii43
uršānum warrior, hero iii34
walādum (v.) G to give birth ii23
wapûm (v.) G to be(come) visible, appear; D to make visible; Š to make manifest, appear iii4
wardum (SAG.ÌR; ÌR) slave, servant ii47
warkûm rear, later ii7
wârum (v.) G to go (up to); D instruct, govern ii31
waṣābum (v.) G to add, increase ii14, 36
wāšibum sitting, dwelling; inhabitant ii35
waṣûm (v.) G to go out, depart; Š caus. of G iii11
ēdēnûm, wēdēnûm alone, single iii30
wuššurum exempt; released, loosened ii26 (?)
zā'erum hostile, enemy i4, 17, ii9
zakārum (v.) to speak, say, name, mention; talk; swear ii21, 38
zērum I hatred, hostile iv4
zikarum, zikrum (NITA) male, virile; man i13, 15, iii31, 33, 46
zīmum face, appearance, figure ii42
zinûm rib of palm-frond i37
zukkûm purified, cleansed iii41
Signs in text
1946
Words in text
721
Sumerograms in text
125
% of Sum. in text
17
Lines in text
163
Average signs per line in text
11.94
SD of signs per line
3.60
Revision History
Wasserman, Nathan
Corrections (editions)
23/04/11
Zomer, Elyze
Transliteration indices
16/11/11
Streck, Michael P.
Corrections
16/11/11
Hess, Christian W.
Cataloguing
01/01/12
Terechov, Nadya
Transliteration
26/12/14
Perdibon, Anna
indices
17/03/15
Zilberg, Peter
indices
17/03/15
Saret, Benny
Bibliography correction
19/11/22