ZA 49, 168–169

SEAL no. 1615

Copy / Photo
168–169, Taf. 15–16
Tablet Siglum
Si 57
Arkeoloji Müzerleri, Istanbul
Genre / Classification
Love Literature, Hammurabi: to Nanaya


col. i

i 1        []u-úr-pí tu-ur-ki ez-bi

i 2        la ma-ga-al da-ba-bu-um

i 3        qá-bé-e qá-bu-ú-um-ma

i 4        ú-ul e-ni-a-ak-ki-im

i 5        at-wa-a-am ma-li a-ab-ta-a-ku

i 6        ša a-na sí-in-ni-iš-tim ip-pa-ra-qá-du

i 7        sà-ma-an du-ri-im

i 8        šum-ma la it-KU-ud ú-ul a-wi-lum mi-i-ir-šu


i 9        li-iz-zi-iz ki-it-ti

i 10      i-na ma-a-ar Iš8-tár šar-ra-tim

i 11      li-i-pí-it ra-mi li-ba-aš

i 12      ka-ar-ri-iš-ti

i 13      k[a-t]i? pa-la-a-am ku-uz-zu-ba-am

i 14      i-ta-ás-u-ur ma-ri-im

i 15      i-na qá-bé-e dNa-na-a-a ub!-lam! da-ri-iš

i 16      a-li me-i-ir-ti


i 17      e-li-ki a-as-sà-a-ku

i 18      a-na ši-ib-qì-ki ša pa-na-nu-um

i 19      mu-ug-ri a-ta-al-ki

i 20      a-na ma-li-ik-ti-ki šu-un-ni-i

i 21      ki-ma e-re-nu


i 22      ú-a-ab-ba-at-ka-ma UD-ma-am

i 23      ra-am-ka ù ra-mi uš-ta-ma-ga-ar

i 24      us-sé-ne-el-le-ma a-na dNa-na-a-a

i 25      sa-li-im-ka be-lí da-ri-a-am e-le-eq-qé

i 26      na-ad-nam


i 27      a-la-wi-ki ni-tam i-na e-ri-ki

i 28      ur-pí-a a-ka-a-a-ar

i 29      mu-ta-ak-ki-il-ta-ki li-il-qé-e

i 30      ru-ʾà-am-<ki?> ti-ki-a-ti-ki u-ul-li-q[í]

i 31      li-qé-e ki-na-tim


i 32      (traces)

            (gap of c. 5–6 lines)



ii 1       […]-i ig-gi-[il?-tu?]

ii 2       ú-ul i-ba-aš-ši-i-[ma]

ii 3       mi-im-ma ú-ul i-na li-ib-bi-ia [x]

ii 4       iš-ša-aq-qá-al-ši-im [x]-x-el-[x]

ii 5       ú-za-am-ma [ra]-mi


ii 6       e-li la ra-im-ti-ka mi-ši-tam li-[it-bu-uk]

ii 7       šar-ra-tum Iš8-tár

ii 8       ki-ma ia-ti la a-la-lum [lu e-mi-is-si]

ii 9       ka-li mu-ši-im li-ku-úr [li-id-li-ip]


ii 10     e-ze-er la mu-se-ep-p[í-(it)-tam]

ii 11     ú-ul a-a-aš-še-e la [mu-ka-zi-ib-tam]

ii 12     ú-ul a-na-ad-di-iš-ši-im [i-ri-mi]

ii 13     da-ba-bu-um a-na la [ma-ga-ri-im]

ii 14     mi-nam i-[ba-aš-ši]

ii 15     ú-ša-ak-la da-bi-ba-[ti-ša/ia]

ii 16     ú-ul e-še-em-me(-)ša […]

ii 17     a-ša-ar li?-[ib-bi ek-le-tim]

ii 18     ra-mi [x] at-ta-di

ii 19     mi-nam tu-sa-an-na-qá-ni-i[n-ni]


ii 20     it-ta-tu?-ia ú-la-ap-<pa>-ta-ni-[in-ni]

ii 21     ša-a[p]-ti e-li-tum i-la-[ab-bi-ik]

ii 22     lu ša-ap-li-tum-ma i-ru-ub-[ba-am]

ii 23     e-di-ir-šu a-na-aš-ši-iq-[šu]

ii 24     at-ta-na-ap-la-ás el-[šu]

ii 25     a-ka-aš-ša-ad er-ni-it-ti [x x]

ii 26     e-li da-[bi-ba-ti-ia]

ii 27     ù dam-qí-iš ar-r[a-i-mi-ia x x x]

ii 28     i-nu-ma ši-it-ta-n[i x x x x x]

ii 29     ni-ka-aš-ša-a[d ernittam?]


ii 30     (traces)

            (gap of c. 14 lines)



col. iii

iii 1      […]

iii 2      i-na […]

iii 3      ar-wi-[ia? x x x x]

iii 4      a-la-súm ú-ul e-li-i k[a-ša-sú]

iii 5      a-na Iš8-tár id-di-na-aš-šu a-na q[í-iš-tim]


iii 6      a-na ša iq-ta-na-ab-bi-a-ni-ik-[ki-im]

iii 7      ú-la-mi et-tum a[t-ti]

iii 8      ki-le-e at-ba-al ra-mi ú-ul [x x]

iii 9      ut-te-es-sí i-na zu-um-ri-k[i]

iii 10    ki-ma ša-ar bi-ri in-bi-ia ur?-ti?-iq?


iii 11    a-sa-a-u-ur in-bi-[ka]

iii 12    be-lí zu-um-ma-a-ku ra-am-[ka]

iii 13    iq-qá-at í-a-tu-ka šu-[x (x)]

iii 14    lu pa-a!(Text: I)-ma an-sú-ur-ri ú-ul [x x x]

iii 15    ur-ri ù mu-ši a-da-ab-bu-ub [it-ti-ka]


iii 16    lu-tu-úr ù lu-tu-ur-ma lu-uš-[lu-uš]

iii 17    a-na pí-ia à-ba-am la ú-še-eb?-b[u? x x]

iii 18    a-na ú-pa (-) a-ap-tim ti-i-ba-ti x x

iii 19    ku-uš-di ga-na ra-mi


iii 20    an-a?(Text: N[A]) i-na-ia da-an-ni-iš {IŠ}

iii 21    da-al-pa-a-ku i-na i-ta-ap-lu-si-šu

iii 22    tu-ša i-ba-a ba-ab-[t]i

iii 23    UD-mu-um it-ta-la-ak a-li [ma-ri or: be-lí]

            (gap of c. 15 lines)


col. iv

iv 1      [a-n]a ka-[ša?-di?-šu? x x x x x]

iv 2      iš-té-na[m x x x x x]

iv 3      mi-nam [x x x x]

iv 4      ga-na lu-u-ba-at bi-[ir?-ke?-šu?]

iv 5      lu-ši-ib lu-te-eq-qí šum-ma ša gir-ri-ia


iv 6      at-ma-ki-im dNa-na-a-a ù a-am-mu-ra-pí šarram(LUGAL)

iv 7      ša ki-na-ti-ia lu a-qá-ab-bi-ki-im

iv 8      ra-am-ki e-li di-li-ip-tim

iv 9      ù a-šu-uš-tim la wa-at-ru i-na e-ri-ia


iv 10    e-ra-da-nim° aš-šum qí-pa-a-ku ra-i-mi

iv 11    da-bi-ba-tu-ia

iv 12    e-li ka-ka-ab ša-me-e ma-da

iv 13    li-ir-[q]í-a li-ta-aq-ra

iv 14    ša-ar i-na-an-na-ma li-it-ta-<ar>-qí-a

iv 15    a-na-ku uš-ba-am-ma

iv 16    -i be-lí-ia eš-te-ne-em-me


iv 17    et-ti la ma-ás-ku

iv 18    [š]a pa-na zi-mu-ki

iv 19    [az]-zi-iz-ki-im-ma

iv 20    [pu-d]i-ki te-te-en-di {DI}

iv 21    [ma-g]i-ir-tum šum-ki

iv 22    [be-l]e-et mi-il-ki-i na-ba-ki

iv 23    ša-ni-tum-ma!(Text: MI) lu le-mu-ut-ta-ni

iv 24    [ma]-a-ar Iš8-tár


iv 25    [dam?-?-i]š? ta-ap-pa-al



col. i

i 1              (He:) Yell! Do not bother to reply!

i 2              Not so much talking!

i 3              My decision is made,

i 4–5          I will not change for you a word, anything I said.

i 6–7          He who lies on his back for a woman is a weevil from the city wall.

i 8              If he is not serious he is no match for a man.


i 9–10        (She:) May my righteousness appear before Ištar the queen!

i 11–12      May my love prevail, may my slanderer come to shame!

i 13–15      At Nanāya’s command I have always (taken upon me) to adore you, to charm you, to take care of (my) baby!

i 16            Where is my match?!


i 17–18      (He:) I remember more than you your tricks of the past.

i 19–21      Give up! Go away! Report to your counselor that we are (now) awake!


i 22–23      (She:) I will catch you, and this very day I shall reconcile your love with mine.

i 24            I keep on praying to Nanāya;

i 25–26      (So that) I shall accept your peace, my lord, forever, as a gift.


i 27            (He:) I shall lay siege upon you,

i 28            I shall gather my clouds on you.

i 29–30      May your supporter take away your seductiveness, put an end to your complaint!

i 31            Accept the truth!

i 32            …

                  (gap of c. 5–6 lines)


col. ii

ii 1             (He:) […] she/he was aw[ake(?)]

ii 2             and does not exist.

ii 3–4         Nothing is in my heart

ii 4             ... will be paid out to her.

ii 5             I yearn for my [lo]ve.


ii 6–7         (She:) May queen Ištar [pour] confusion over the one who loves you not!

ii 8             May she, like me, [be afflicted] with sleeplessness!

ii 9             May she be dazed and [restless] all night long!


ii 10           (He:) I despise the girl who does not wo[rship (me)].

ii 11           I do not desire for the girl who does not [fawn].

ii 12           I shall not give her [my love-charm].

ii 13           Talking in order to dis[agree]

ii 14           Why [does it exist?]

ii 15           I shall stop [her/my] slanderers,

ii 16           I shall not hear what […]

ii 17–18     To the m[idst of darkness] I have thrown away my love:

ii 19           Why do you keep bothering [me]?


ii 20           (She:) My (ominous) signs trouble me:

ii 21           My upper lip becomes moist,

ii 22           While my lower lip trembles!

ii 23           I shall embrace him, I shall kiss him,

ii 24           I shall gaze at [him],

ii 25–26     I shall achieve my victory […] over [my slanderers],

ii 27           And to my lover [I shall] gracefully […]

ii 28           When our sleep […]

ii 29           We shall achieve [victory]


ii 30           …

                  (gap of c. 14 lines)



col. iii

iii 1            (She:) …

iii 2            In […]

iii 3            [My(?)] gazelle […]

iii 4            I run but I cannot [reach him],

iii 5            She gave him to Ištar as a gift.


iii 6            (He:) As for those (women) who keep telling you:

iii 7            “Y[ou] are not the only one!”

iii 8            Stop! I have taken my love away, and will not [return (it)].

iii 9            I have removed [it] from your body,

iii 10          I have taken my charms thousands of miles away.


iii 11          (She:) I seek [your] pleasures,

iii 12          My lord, I yearn for [your] love.

iii 13          Because in your delights […]

iii 14          Let them be veiled, would they never […]

iii 15          I shall talk [to you] day and night.


iii 16          (He:) Let me repeat it twice and thrice;

iii 17          I swear not to say anything kind to you (lit. satisfy my mouth with kindness),

iii 18          Take your place by the window orifice:

iii 19          Come on, catch my love!


iii 20          (She:) My eyes are very tired,

iii 21          I am sleepless from gazing at him,

iii 22          It seems that he walked across my street?

iii 23          The day has gone by, where is [my darling (or: my lord)]?

                  (gap of c. 15 lines)


col. iv

iv 1            (She:) To catch him […]

iv 2            The one […]

iv 3            What […]

iv 4            Come on, let me hold [his] k[nees],

iv 5            I shall sit and wait maybe he is on his way to me!


iv 6            (He:) I have sworn to you by Nanāya and Hammurāpi the king;

iv 7            Indeed, I am telling to you the truth;

iv 8–9        Your love is nothing more to me than agony and grief.


iv 10          (She:) They(f.) ... because I trust my loved one.

iv 11–12     My slanderers outnumber the stars of heaven.

iv 13          May they hide! May they be scarce!

iv 14          May they hide themselves forever right now!

iv 15–16     And as for me, I sat down, listening to the words of my lord.


iv 17–18     (He:) My one, not ugly are your features – (they are) as before,

iv 19          (When) I stood by you,

iv 20          And you leaned your sh[oulders] (against me).

iv 21          [Mag]irtum (“Favorable”) is your name,

iv 22          “Wise la[dy]”– your title.

iv 23          The other woman is indeed our misfortune,

iv 24          By Ištar!


iv 25          [...Nice]ly you reply.

Word Translation Semantic Line
anāḫum (v.) G to become tired; Š trouble, exert, strain; Št be depressed iii20
apālum (v.) G to answer; to pay Edge
aptum window, window opening Fabricated objects iii18
arwûm, armûm gazelle (male) Fauna (wild) iii3
ašuštum affliction, grief Abstract concepts iv 9
awīlum, aʾīlu (LÚ; LÚ.ÙLU) man, free man, human being Social status/Groups/Professions i8
bābtum city quarter, district Locations/Buildings iii22
bâšum (v.) to be ashamed, come to shame i11
bašûm (v.) G to be, exist; Š bring into being, create ii2. [ii14]
bâ'um (v.) G to go along, across, pass, overtake, defeat; Š cause to move along iii22
bēlet milkī wise lady, lady of counsels Deities/Divine sphere iv22
bēltum (NIN) lady, mistress, proprietress Social status/Groups/Professions iv22
bērum III (DANNA) double hour, league Abstract concepts iii10
birkum knee Body/Body parts [iv4]
būdum, pūdum shoulder Body/Body parts [iv20]
dabābum I talk Verbal expressions i2
dabābum II (v.) G to speak, talk; Gt speak to each other i2, ii13, iii15
dabbibum, f. dabbibtum slanderer Social status/Groups/Professions ii15, [ii26], iv11
dalāpum (v.) G to stir up; N become restless; to be sleepless, to be kept awake [ii9], iii21
diliptum sleeplessness, anxiety Abstract concepts iv8
dūrum (city) wall, rampart Fabricated objects,Locations/Buildings i7
edērum (v.) G to embrace; N embrace one another ii23
ekletum darkness Abstract concepts,Nature/Cosmological phenomena [ii17]
emēdum (v.) to lean on, impose, dock (a ship) [ii8], iv20
enûm (v.) to change, overturn i4
ernittum triumph, battle objective Abstract concepts,Human activities/actions ii25, [ii29]
êrum (v.) to be(come) awake i21
ezēbum (v.) G to leave, leave behind; Š to save i1
gerrum way, caravan, (military) campaign; marching song? Human activities/actions iv5
ḫalāqum (v.) G to be lost; D lose, destroy i30
Ḫammurāpi PN; RN PN iv6
ḫapātum (v.) to triumph, prevail i11
ḫašāḫum (v.) to need, desire ii11
ḫasāsum (v.) G to remember, to be conscious i17
ḫībum beloved Social status/Groups/Professions iii17
inbum fruit, flower, sexual appeal Flora iii10, iii11
irimmum charm, love charm Abstract concepts [ii12]
Ištar DN Deities/Divine sphere ii7, iii5, iv24
ittum sign, mark Abstract concepts ii20
izuzzum (v.) (GUB) G to stand; Gtn iter. of G; Š cause to be present, appoint i9, iv19
kakkabum (MUL) star, meteor Nature/Cosmological phenomena iv12
kalûm V (v.) G to hold (back), detain ii15, iii8
karriṣum slanderer Social status/Groups/Professions i12
kârum (v.) to be dazed ii9
kašādum (v.) G to reach, arrive; D drive off, chase away; Š caus. of G ii25, ii29, [iii4], iii19, [iv1]
kaṣārum (v.) to tie, knot; gather i28
kazābum (v.) G to be attractive, alluring; D flatter, fawn i13
kittum I steadiness, reliability, truth, justice, loyality Abstract concepts i9, i31, iv7
labākum (v.) to be(come) soft [ii21]
lapātum (v.) G to touch; D ~ G; Š ruin, destroy, plunder ii20
lasāmum (v.) G to run iii4
lawûm (v.) G to surround, besiege, encircle, wrap up; Š encircle, walk around i27
lemuttum evil, wickedness Abstract concepts iv23
leqûm (v.) G to take, take over; Š caus. of G i25, i29, i31
le'ûm (v.) to be able, powerful iii4
mâdum (v.) to be(come) many, numerous iv12
magārum (v.) G to consent, agree; Gt to agree with one another, settle on i19, i23, [ii13]
magrum (ŠE.GA) friendly, favourable Qualities/Attributes iv21
mālikum advicer, counsellor Social status/Groups/Professions i20
mārum (DUMU) boy, son, descendant Kinship terms,Social status/Groups/Professions i14, [iii23]
masākum (v.) to be(come) bad, worsen iv17
mīšītum confusion Abstract concepts ii6
mukazzibtum fawner (f.) [ii11]
museppûm, f. museppītum supplicant; worshipper Social status/Groups/Professions [ii10]
mūšum (GI6) night(-time) Abstract concepts,Time concepts ii9, iii15
muttakiltum supporter (f.) Social status/Groups/Professions i29
nadānum (v.) (SUM) G to give, bestow ii12, iii5
nadûm III (v.) G to throw down, lay down; N to be rejected; Š caus. of G ii18
nagaltûm (v.) N to awake, wake up [ii1]
nakādum (v.) G to be frightened, anxious; Š make the heart throb, worry i8
Nanāya DN Deities/Divine sphere i15, i24, iv6
naparqudum (v.) to lie on o.'s back, lie flat (against) i6
našāqum (v.) to kiss ii23
nesûm (v.) to be distant, withdraw; D take away, remove iii9
nesûm (v.) to be distant, withdraw; D take away, remove iii9
nītum encirclement, enclosure Locations/Buildings i27
palāḫum (v.) G to fear, revere i13
palāsum (v.) to look, glance, G to look at, towards; N look, gaze, consider; Ntn iter. constantly gaze at ii24, iii21
pasāmum (v.) to veil iii14
qabûm (v.) (DUG4) G to say, speak, command i3, iii6, iv7
qiāpum (v.) to (en)trust; believe iv10
qīštum gift, present Abstract concepts [iii5]
râmum love, love-making Abstract concepts,Emotions/Feelings,Human activities/actions i11, i23, [ii5], ii18, iii8, iii12, iii19, iv 8)
raqûm II (v.) to hide, give refuge to, N hide (o.s.), take refuge iv14
ra'ābum (v.) to shake, tremble ii22
ra'īmum loved, beloved Social status/Groups/Professions ii6, [i27], iv10
ru'āmum love-making; sexual charm of a woman Abstract concepts i30
saḫārum (v.) G go around, turn, search; N to turn back, come back i14, iii11
ṣalālum (v.) G to lie down, sleep Human activities/actions ii8
šalāšum (v.) to do for a third time, three times [iii16]
samānum, šamānum disease of men and animals (a kind of) Diseases/Demons,Fauna (wild) i7
ṣamûm (v.) to be(come) thirsty, thirst for; D make thirsty iii12
sanāqum (v.) to check, approach ii19
šanûm III (v.) G to do twice, do for a second time; D repeat, report i20
šaptum lip, rim Body/Body parts ii21
šaqālum (v.) to weigh, pay; balance, suspend, N be weighed, paid out ii4
šār 3600, indefinitely large number of years Abstract concepts iii10, iv14
ṣarāpum II (v.) G to be loud, resound; Š make lamentation resound i1
šarratum queen Social status/Groups/Professions i10, ii7
šarrum (LUGAL; EN) king, lord Social status/Groups/Professions iv6
šebûm I (v.) to be satiated, satisfied; to be full iii17
šemûm (v.) G to listen, to hear; Gtn to hear, to listen again and again ii16, iv16
šibqū scheme, plan, trick, plot i18
ṣīḫtum laughter, pl. flirtations, amusements, delights Human activities/actions iii13
sinništum (MUNUS) woman Social status/Groups/Professions i6
šittum sleep Abstract concepts,Human activities/actions ii28
sullûm (v.) to appeal to s.o., pray to i24
tabākum (v.) G to pour (out), lay flat; Ntn repeatedly swoop on [ii6]
tamûm II (v.) G to swear; D swear, bind by oath iv6
tarākum (v.) G to beat, thump, be dark; D~G i1
târum (v.) (GUR) G to turn, return, become again; D to bring, send, give, pay back iii16
tēkītum complaint, grumbling Verbal expressions i30
ūmum I (UD) day, daily Abstract concepts,Time concepts iii23
uppum I tube, socket Fabricated objects iii18
urpum cloud(s) Nature/Cosmological phenomena i28
urrum daytime, morning, daybreak Time concepts iii15
wabālum (v.) G to carry, bring; Š send, deliver, make bear; Št pass. of Š i15, iii8
waqārum (v.) G to be(come) rare, precious; Š make rare, scarce; esteem, respect, honor iv13
waqûm (v.) G to wait, Dt wait, await, expect, to wait attentively iv5
warādum (v.) G to go down, descend; Gt to go down, descend; Š to send, take, bring down iv 10
wašābum (v.) to sit, dwell iv5, iv15
zêrum (v.) G to dislike, hate, reject ii10
zummûm (v.) D to be deprived of; deprive; Š deprive ii5, iii12
zumrum body, person Body/Body parts iii9
Signs in text
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Revision History
Wagschal, Avigail
Transliteration, indices
Ron-Gilboa, Guy
Translation, commentary
Wasserman, Nathan
Translation, commentary (corrections)
Wasserman, Nathan
Wasserman, Nathan
Commentary, translation, indices (corrections)
Wasserman, Nathan
Wasserman, Nathan
Wagschal, Avigail
Indexing (stage 2)
Wagschal, Avigail
Indices (corrections)
Wasserman, Nathan
Corrections (edition, translation, commentary)
Bloch, Yigal
Online formatting and revision